The Museum's collection of Modern and Contemporary Art began with a focus on art made within the state of Florida by transplants and visiting artists. The artists represented in the collection mirror the great diversity within the statewide population, including works by Cuban-American and other Latino artists, African-American artists and Asian-American artists.

The collection has grown to include works by nationally and internationally recognized artists, , as well as African and Pre-Columbian collections and British and European Decorative Arts from the 15th- to 20th-centuries.

Of note is the collection of Korean Silla-period ceramic and metal objects dated 300-900 CE; 19th- and 20th-century Chinese and Japanese ceramics, ivories, and textiles; Chinese and Japanese scrolls; Japanese woodblock prints; and Indian decorative arts. Of particular significance is a portfolio of rare 19th-century Japanese woodblock prints by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi depicting the Thirty-two Aspects of Women and a group of 48 ceramic objects by noted 20th-century Japanese artists.

Exhibitions & Dates